High quality 3C de novo assembly and annotation of a multidrug resistant ST-111 Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome: Benchmark of hybrid and non-hybrid assemblers

Genotyping methods and genome sequencing are indispensable to reveal genomic structure of bacterial species displaying high level of genome plasticity. However, reconstruction of genome or assembly is not straightforward due to data complexity, including repeats, mobile and accessory genetic element...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Molina Mora, José Arturo, Campos Sánchez, Rebeca, Rodríguez Sánchez, César, Shi, Leming, García Santamaría, Fernando
Format: Artículo
Language:Inglés
Published: 2020
Subjects:
Online Access:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-58319-6
https://hdl.handle.net/10669/82203
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58319-6
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Summary:Genotyping methods and genome sequencing are indispensable to reveal genomic structure of bacterial species displaying high level of genome plasticity. However, reconstruction of genome or assembly is not straightforward due to data complexity, including repeats, mobile and accessory genetic elements of bacterial genomes. Moreover, since the solution to this problem is strongly influenced by sequencing technology, bioinformatics pipelines, and selection criteria to assess assemblers, there is no systematic way to select a priori the optimal assembler and parameter settings. To assembly the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AG1 (PaeAG1), short reads (Illumina) and long reads (Oxford Nanopore) sequencing data were used in 13 different non-hybrid and hybrid approaches. PaeAG1 is a multiresistant high-risk sequence type 111 (ST-111) clone that was isolated from a Costa Rican hospital and it was the first report of an isolate of P. aeruginosa carrying both blaVIM-2 and blaIMP-18 genes encoding for metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) enzymes. To assess the assemblies, multiple metrics regard to contiguity, correctness and completeness (3C criterion, as we define here) were used for benchmarking the 13 approaches and select a definitive assembly. In addition, annotation was done to identify genes (coding and RNA regions) and to describe the genomic content of PaeAG1. Whereas long reads and hybrid approaches showed better performances in terms of contiguity, higher correctness and completeness metrics were obtained for short read only and hybrid approaches. A manually curated and polished hybrid assembly gave rise to a single circular sequence with 100% of core genes and known regions identified, >98% of reads mapped back, no gaps, and uniform coverage. The strategy followed to obtain this high-quality 3C assembly is detailed in the manuscript and we provide readers with an all-in-one script to replicate our results or to apply it to other troublesome cases. The final 3C assembly revealed that the PaeAG1 genome has 7,190,208 bp, a 65.7% GC content and 6,709 genes (6,620 coding sequences), many of which are included in multiple mobile genomic elements, such as 57 genomic islands, six prophages, and two complete integrons with blaVIM-2 and blaIMP-18 MBL genes. Up to 250 and 60 of the predicted genes are anticipated to play a role in virulence (adherence, quorum sensing and secretion) or antibiotic resistance (β-lactamases, efflux pumps, etc). Altogether, the assembly and annotation of the PaeAG1 genome provide new perspectives to continue studying the genomic diversity and gene content of this important human pathogen.